CRIME TRENDS IN INDIA AND SECURITY GUARDING RESPONSES

Tenon

Introduction

National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) which functions under the Ministry of Home Affairs has released statistics of Crime in India in 2015 recently which outlines basic trends in crime in the country. Trends and patterns in crime have an important bearing on security guarding as these provide geographic areas of focus and techniques to be employed, armed/unarmed and so on. Trends of crimes change with growing population and rapid development of towns and cities which has led to focus on urban areas. Thus these statistics provide an important guideline for guarding agencies which should be combined with local factors to strengthen the grid and provide effective security to assets and personnel. While the main task of control of crime is that of the government law enforcement agencies, paucity in numbers have placed private security agencies at the forefront, thus an understanding of the crime trends assumes importance.

Aim

The aim of this paper is to outline crime trends in India in 2015 and provide general recommendations for security guarding.

General Trend – Crime 2015

The general trend observed from pattern of crime and activities of criminals in 2015 indicates improved organization and use of communications both surface and mobile to advantage. Criminals are continuously adapting to technology and innovating new techniques and modus operandi. Criminals operate across states and even national boundaries. The general areas of concern in terms of crime are as follows:-

  • ➝ Crime against women remains a key challenge with urban areas including metros seeing maximum number of reported incidents.
  • ➝ There is high incidence of property related crimes in industrialised states and metros due to a variety of factors including socio-economic and opportunity related issues.
  • ➝ Incidence of armed crime is higher in cities of Uttar Pradesh though overall IPC cases reported have been low.
  • ➝ Key states of concern remain Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Karnataka. Delhi NCR is an area of particular concern with high incidence of crime.
  • ➝ Public order issues are of highest concern in the above mentioned states and in addition in Gujarat, Assam and Kerala.

Type of Crime – Increase

A survey of crime trends from 2005-2014 with that in 2015 has revealed a perceptible increase in the following types of IPC crime:-

  • ➝ Attempt to Commit Murder.
  • ➝ Rape and assault on women.
  • ➝ Kidnapping, abduction and extortion.
  • ➝ Robbery and theft – particularly high value establishments.
  • ➝ Riots and arson.

Given these trends general measures for effective guarding are suggested as follows:-

  • ➝ Women security assumes special importance and specific measures for the same need to be introduced particularly in sectors such as IT/BPOs employing large numbers.
  • ➝ Diversity in guarding to include women needs consideration.
  • ➝ Review overall crime trend in the local area and focus on denial and deterrence of the most prevalent activity.
  • ➝ Security enhancements at high value establishments – banks, ATMs, jewelry and electronic stores with 360 degree coverage.
  • ➝ Executive security assumes importance given large number of kidnapping, extortion and murders.
  • ➝ Coordination with law enforcement agencies assumes importance particularly in areas having high incidents of riots and arson.

High Incidence of IPC Crimes

Cities (Population over 10 Lakhs) with high incidence of IPC crimes are as follows:-

  • ➝ Delhi (City)
  • ➝ Gwalior
  • ➝ Indore
  • ➝ Jabalpur
  • ➝ Jaipur
  • ➝ Jodhpur
  • ➝ Kochi
  • ➝ Kollam
  • ➝ Patna
  • ➝ Thiruvananthapuram
  • ➝ Thrissur
  • ➝ Vadodara

States with high incidence of IPC crimes related to property offences such as theft, dacoity and so on are as follows:-

  • ➝ Bihar
  • ➝ Haryana
  • ➝ Karnataka
  • ➝ Madhya Pradesh
  • ➝ Maharashtra
  • ➝ Odisha
  • ➝ Rajasthan
  • ➝ Tamil Nadu
  • ➝ Telangana
  • ➝ Uttar Pradesh
  • ➝ West Bengal
  • ➝ Delhi UT

Measures necessary for effective security guarding for prevention, denial and deterrence of IPC crimes are as follows:-

  • ➝ Advise clients in these cities/states on the pattern of crime and need for enhanced security guarding.
  • ➝ Identify pockets with high incidence of crime within the cities/states based on details of crime data and undertake enhanced security guarding measures in these.
  • ➝ Generally locations near pockets of large migrant and temporary populations such as slums and shanties are more vulnerable and thus need focus.
  • ➝ Employ integrated guarding with a mix of electronic and physical security measures to overcome gaps and increase detection.
  • ➝ Photographs of known criminals with identity and details should be posted at the sites and guards familiarized with the same so that these can be identified with ease.
  • ➝ Deploy face recognition software particularly at high value establishments to identify criminals through comparison with data base.
  • ➝ Criminals are using innovative techniques thus guards should be made aware of the same and measures to defeat these need to be undertaken.

Cities (Over 10 Lakhs) with High Incidence of SLL Crimes

Cities with high incidence of Special & Local Laws (SLL) crimes which relate to crimes under Arms Act, NDPS ACT, Gambling Act, Excise Act, Prohibition Act, Explosives Substances Act and so on are as follows:-

  • ➝ Agra
  • ➝ Allahabad
  • ➝ Chennai
  • ➝ Durg-Bhilainagar
  • ➝ Ghaziabad
  • ➝ Kanpur
  • ➝ Lucknow
  • ➝ Meerut
  • ➝ Raipur
  • ➝ Surat
  • ➝ Varanasi

Measures for effective guarding need to include the following:-

  • ➝ A majority of these cities are located in Uttar Pradesh (UP) which has a high incidence of armed crime, thus requiring special focus.
  • ➝ Apart from UP, Chennai and Surat have also reported high incidence which should necessitate additional security measures in these cities as well.
  • ➝ Chennai has high incidence of crime during cash movement while Surat being a diamond trading hub, security of the high value establishments assumes importance.
  • ➝ There would be an increase in the requirement of armed guards particularly for security of high value establishments and industrial plants which are on the periphery of urban or semi urban pockets.
  • ➝ Deployment should be essentially in buddy pairs with at least one armed guard.
  • ➝ Standoff access control measures are advisable for protection of key assets.
  • ➝ Quick Reaction Teams (QRTs) with high mobility will be required at large facilities.

Cases Reported under IPC Crimes relating to Public Order During 2015

Cases related to riots, arson, unlawful assembly, offences promoting enmity between different groups and so on remain high in the following states:-

  • ➝ Bihar
  • ➝ Maharashtra
  • ➝ Kerala
  • ➝ Karnataka
  • ➝ Jharkhand
  • ➝ Gujarat
  • ➝ Assam
  • ➝ Rajasthan
  • ➝ Odisha
  • ➝ Tamil Nadu
  • ➝ Uttar Pradesh
  • ➝ West Bengal

Measures for effective guarding need to include the following:-

  • ➝ 24/365 monitoring of the situation to identify critical periods and warn the guarding grid in advance on receipt of first information of violence.
  • ➝ Identification of hot spots in these states where incidents of violence have been frequent thereby focusing on predictive analytics to deploy security elements.
  • ➝ Larger detachments, employment of armed guards and QRTs and enhancing strength once possibility of violence is identified.
  • ➝ Sustained coordination and effective communication with local police given the need for assistance in case of a criticality.
  • ➝ Standoff access controls with effective perimeter controls to protect high value assets.
  • ➝ Maintaining harmonious community relations with a view to generate information as well as goodwill to prevent harm to assets being guarded. Client CSR activity could be dovetailed with the same.

Conclusion

While crime trends published by the NCRB are generic in nature these nonetheless provide geographic areas and activities which need focus. Dovetailed with exhaustive data base that is available locally these should provide guidelines for focused guarding thereby providing high quality effective services to discerning clients.

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